American Academy of Pediatrics Policy Statement: Breastfeeding and the Use of Human Milk. The AAP outlines 15 recommended breastfeeding practices and a number of statements on the role of pediatricians in promoting and protecting breastfeeding.
Based on the present growth rate of 1. Because population growth can not continue indefinitely, society can either voluntarily control its numbers or let natural forces such as disease, malnutrition, and other disasters limit human numbers Pimentel et al.
Increasing human numbers, especially in urban areas, and increasing food, water, air, and soil pollution by pathogenic organisms and chemicals, are causing a rapid increase in the prevalence of disease and number of human deaths WHO,; Murray and Lopez, ; Pimentel et al.
An estimated 40, children die each day due to malnutrition and other diseases WHO, The planet's numerous environmental problems emphasize the urgent need to evaluate the available environmental resources and how they relate to the requirements of a rapidly growing human population Hardin, ; Cohen, In this article we assess the carrying capacity of the Earth's natural resources, and suggest that humans should voluntarily limit their population growth, rather than letting natural forces control their numbers for them.
In addition, we suggest appropriate policies and technologies that would improve the standard of living and quality of life worldwide. As human populations continue to expand and finite resources are divided among increasing numbers of people, it will become more and more difficult to maintain prosperity and a quality of life, and personal freedoms will decline UNFPA, ; RS and NAS, ; Rees, During recent decades there has been a dramatic worldwide population increase.
China's population is 1.
India has nearly 1 billion people living on approximately one-third of the land of either the United States or China. India's current population growth rate is 1. Together, China and India constitute more than one-third of the total world population. Given the steady decline in per capita resources, it is unlikely that India, China, and the world population in total will double.
In addition to limitations due to population increases, high per capita consumption levels in the United States and other developed nations also put pressure on natural resources.
For example, each American consumes about times more goods and services than the average Chinese citizen PRB, This does not imply that both developed and developing countries can not use their resources more efficiently than they are at present through the implementation of appropriate policies and technologies.
Accelerated declines in the U. Measurable shortages of fertile land, water, and fossil energy now exist in many regions of the world Worldwatch Institute, ; WRI, ; WRI, Globally, the annual loss of land to urbanization and highways ranges from 10 to 35 million hectares per year, with half of this lost land coming from cropland Doeoes, Inwhen the world population numbered about 3 billion, approximately 0.
The average per capita world cropland now is only 0. This shortage of productive cropland is one underlying cause of the current worldwide food shortages and poverty Leach, ; Pimentel and Pimentel, For example, in China, the amount of available cropland is only 0.
This minute amount of arable land forces the Chinese people to consume primarily a vegetarian diet Table 2.
By all measurements, the Chinese have reached or exceeded the limits of their agricultural system Brown, Their reliance on large inputs of fossil-fuel based fertilizers --as well as other limited inputs -- to compensate for shortages of arable land and severely eroded soils, indicates severe problems for the future Wen and Pimentel, The Chinese already import large amounts of grain from the United States and other nations, and are planning to increase these imports in the future Alexandratos, Escalating land degradation threatens most crop and pasture land throughout the world Lal and Pierce, ; Pimentel et al, The major types of degradation include water and wind erosion, and the salinization and water-logging of irrigated soils Kendall and Pimentel, Moreover, an additional 5 million hectares of new land must be put into production each year to feed the nearly 84 million humans annually added to the world population.
Most of the 15 million hectares needed yearly to replace lost land is coming from the world's forests Houghton, ; WRI, Agricultural erosion by wind and water is the most serious cause of soil loss and degradation.
Current erosion rates are greater than ever previously recorded Pimentel and Hall, ; Pimentel et al. During the past 30 years, the rate of soil loss in Africa has increased fold Tolba, Wind erosion is so serious in China that Chinese soil can be detected in the Hawaiian atmosphere during the spring planting period Parrington et al.
Similarly, soil eroded by wind in Africa can be detected in Florida and Brazil Simons, Erosion adversely affects crop productivity by reducing the water-holding capacity of the soil, water availability, nutrient levels and organic matter in the soil, and soil depth Pimentel et al.
These estimates emphasize the need to implement known soil conservation techniques, including biomass mulches, no-till, ridge-till, terracing, grass strips, crop rotations, and combinations of all of these. All these techniques essentially require keeping the land protected from wind and rainfall effects with some form of vegetative cover Pimentel et al.Passionate claims are made that drinking distilled water is harmful and will 'lead to early death'.
Others make equally fervent claims that drinking distilled water is the best way to become and stay healthy. Human resources planning is an integration that define the current and future human resources needs for an organization to achieve its goals.
Published: Wed, 29 Nov Human Resource (HRM) Planning in Health Organization. Below are additional scientific products and resources regarding science about the human dimensions of urban forestry and urban greening. There is/was a problem with your internet connection. Please note that some features may not function properly.
Please refresh your browser if your internet. Here comes the role of the human resource department in acting as a counsellor and a mediator to sort the issues in an effective manner. The HR takes timely action so that thing does not go out of. An organisation cannot build a good team of working professionals without good Human Resources.
The key functions of the Human Resources Management (HRM) team include recruiting people, training them, performance appraisals, motivating employees as well as workplace communication, workplace safety, and much more.