Introduction This section of the website deals with the earth's atmosphere, and particulary with the science of meteorology. Meteorology has a theoretical aspect, a branch of classical physics dealing with the statics, dynamics and thermodynamics of the moist air that makes up the atmosphere. It also has a practical aspect, weather analysis and forecasting, which is of great practical utility to agriculture, navigation and aeronautics.
General considerations Measurements and ideas as the basis for weather prediction The observations of few other scientific enterprises are as vital or affect as many people as those related to weather forecasting.
With such information they must have enjoyed greater success in the search for food and safety, the major objectives of that time. In a sense, weather forecasting is still carried out in basically the same way as it was by the earliest humans—namely, by making observations and predicting changes.
The modern tools used to measure temperaturepressure, wind, and humidity in the 21st century would certainly amaze them, and the results obviously are better. Yet, even the most sophisticated numerically calculated forecast made on a supercomputer requires a set of measurements of the condition of the atmosphere —an initial picture of temperature, wind, and other basic elements, somewhat comparable to that formed by our forebears when they looked out of their cave dwellings.
The primeval approach entailed insights based on the accumulated experience of the perceptive observer, while the modern technique consists of solving equations. Although seemingly quite different, there are underlying similarities between both practices.
Because observations are so critical to weather prediction, an account of meteorological measurements and weather forecasting is a story in which ideas and technology are closely intertwined, with creative thinkers drawing new insights from available observations and pointing to the need for new or better measurements, and technology providing the means for making new observations and for processing the data derived from measurements.
The basis for weather prediction started with the theories of the ancient Greek philosophers and continued with Renaissance scientists, the scientific revolution of the 17th and 18th centuries, and the theoretical models of 20th- and 21st-century atmospheric scientists and meteorologists.
In synoptic meteorologysimultaneous observations for a specific time are plotted on a map for a broad area whereby a general view of the weather in that region is gained. Since the midth century, digital computers have made it possible to calculate changes in atmospheric conditions mathematically and objectively—i.
The widespread adoption of numerical weather prediction models brought a whole new group of players—computer specialists and experts in numerical processing and statistics—to the scene to work with atmospheric scientists and meteorologists.
Moreover, the enhanced capability to process and analyze weather data stimulated the long-standing interest of meteorologists in securing more observations of greater accuracy. Technological advances since the s have led to a growing reliance on remote sensing, particularly the gathering of data with specially instrumented Earth-orbiting satellites.
By the late s, forecasts of weather were largely based on the determinations of numerical models integrated by high-speed supercomputers, except some shorter-range predictions, particularly those related to local thunderstorm activity, were made by specialists directly interpreting radar and satellite measurements.
Practical applications of weather forecasting Systematic weather records were kept after instruments for measuring atmospheric conditions became available during the 17th century. Undoubtedly these early records were employed mainly by those engaged in agriculture.
Planting and harvesting obviously can be planned better and carried out more efficiently if long-term weather patterns can be estimated. In the United States, national weather services were first provided by the Army Signal Corps beginning in These operations were taken over by the Department of Agriculture in By the early s free mail service and telephone were providing forecasts daily to millions of American farmers.
Weather Bureau established a Fruit-Frost forecasting Service during World War Iand by the s radio broadcasts to agricultural interests were being made in most states. Its application in this area gained in importance after Francis W.
Reichelderfer was appointed chief of the U. Weather Bureau in During World War II the discovery of very strong wind currents at high altitudes the jet streams, which can affect aircraft speed and the general susceptibility of military operations in Europe to weather led to a special interest in weather forecasting.
One of the most famous wartime forecasting problems was for Operation Overlordthe invasion of the European mainland at Normandy by Allied forces.
An unusually intense June storm brought high seas and gales to the French coast, but a moderation of the weather that was successfully predicted by Col. Stagg of the British forces after consultation with both British and American forecasters enabled Gen.Weather forecasting is the application of science and technology to predict the conditions of the atmosphere for a given location and time.
Human beings have attempted to predict the weather informally for millennia and formally since the 19th ashio-midori.comr forecasts are made by collecting quantitative data about the current state of the atmosphere at a . Introduction, History of Weather Forecasting. Weather Proverbs Since the science of meteorology was relatively undeveloped during the late s, considerable emphasis was placed on folklore.
Listed are the many rules of thumb and folklore which could be used . Introduction, History of Weather Forecasting. Weather Proverbs Since the science of meteorology was relatively undeveloped during the late s, considerable emphasis was placed on folklore.
Listed are the many rules of thumb and folklore which could be used by forecasters. The list was compiled from Signal Service.
Weather forecasting: Weather forecasting, the prediction of the weather through application of the principles of physics, supplemented by a variety of statistical and empirical techniques.
In addition to predictions of atmospheric phenomena themselves, weather forecasting includes predictions of . Introduction to Weather. Introduction; History of Weather Forecasting; Articles in this Section; Introduction. This section of the website deals with the earth's atmosphere, and particulary with the science of meteorology.
Meteorology has a theoretical aspect, a branch of classical physics dealing with the statics, dynamics and. Nov 13, · Introduction. Weather forecasting can be defined as the application which inserts many scientific technologies to predict the atmosphere status for the future time for specific locations (Sheridan Sheridan, S.
C. The redevelopment of a weather‐type classification scheme .