Polls in this section are arranged in chronological order by last date of fieldwork.
Number of Individuals with Internet Access: When the theory is applied to journalism, the press becomes the means for top-down communication, a tool used by the Party to "educate" the masses and mobilize public will towards socialist progress.
Thus the mass media are not allowed to report any aspect of the internal policy-making process, especially debates within the Party. In this way, the Chinese press has been described as the "mouth and tongue" of the Party. Externally, where the media fail to adequately provide the public with detailed, useful information, internally, within the Party bureaucracy, the media play a crucial role of intelligence gathering and communicating sensitive information to the central leadership.
Therefore, instead of serving as an objective information source, the Chinese press functions as Party-policy announcer, ideological instructor, intelligence collector, and bureaucratic supervisor.
Progressive young Chinese students who were introduced to Western journalism while studying abroad also imported the principles of objective reporting from the West. Upon returning home, these students introduced the methods of running Western-style newspapers to China.
The May Fourth Movement inthe first wave of intellectual liberation, witnessed the publishing of Chinese books on reporting, as well as the emergence of the first financially and politically independent newspapers in China. However, the burgeoning Chinese media were suffocated by Nationalist censorship in the s.
Soon after the Kuomintang KMT gained control of China init promulgated a media policy aimed at enforcing strict censorship and intimidating the press into adhering to KMT doctrine.
But despite brutal enforcement measures, the KMT had no organized system to rein in press freedom, and when times were good, it was fairly tolerant toward the media.
The KMT gave less weight to ideology than the CCP eventually would and therefore allowed greater journalistic freedom.
Chinese journalism under CCP leadership has gone through four phases of development. The first period started with the founding of New China in and ended inwhen the Cultural Revolution began. During those years, private ownership of newspapers was abolished, and the media was gradually turned into a party organ.
Central manipulation of the media intensified during the utopian Great Leap Forward, wherein excessive emphasis on class position and the denunciation of objectivity produced distortions of reality.
Millions of Chinese peasants starved to death partly as a result of media exaggeration of crop production. During the second phasejournalism in China suffered even greater damage. In the years of the Cultural Revolution, almost all newspapers ceased publication except 43 party organs.
In secret and after the Cultural Revolution, the public characterized the news reporting during the Cultural Revolution as "jia falseda exaggeratedand kong empty.
The top agenda of media reform included the crusade for freedom of press, the call for representing the people, the construction of journalism laws, and the emergence of independent newspapers.
Cuts in state subsidies and the rise of advertising and other forms of financing pointed the way toward greater economic independence, which in turn promoted editorial autonomy.
The Tiananmen uprising in and its fallout marked the last phase. The central leadership accused the press of engaging in bourgeois activities such as reflecting mass opinion, maintaining surveillance on government, providing information, and covering entertainment.cookie monster phd dissertation writing votive statue of gudea essays about education ted hughes the jaguar essay corruption in our society essays general essay.
Overall the broadsheet newspaper includes more concept language and is rather informal, whilst the tabloid newspaper has short headlines with a catchy theme to it, instead of a more sophisticated and simple headlines brought to us by the broadsheet newspapers.
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Comparison of a Broadsheet and Tabloid paper. Home / GET EVEN A BETTER ESSAY WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM of writing to keep the reader reading. The actual headline used, ‘Caught like rats in a trap’ is a simile – it is comparing how they were caught to how a rat is caught.
It paints a harsh image in the already believing that the. Media Assignment- comparing Tabloid and Broadsheet Styles Essay Media Assignment- comparing Tabloid and Broadsheet Styles The differences between British newspapers are numerous. The two DIFFERENT types are: Tabloid (commonly known as “red-tops”) and Broadsheet.
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