By Nicholas Barber 18 January When Reservoir Dogs premiered 25 years ago, audiences at the Sundance Film Festival saw a low-budget indie movie about some men arguing in a warehouse, with no big stars and an unknown writer-director. Film fans everywhere were soon debating its back-and-forth chronology, its zinging banter, its ultra-cool s soundtrack, and, most of all, its supposedly excessive violence. After Wes Craven, the director of A Nightmare on Elm Street, walked out of one festival screening in disgust, Reservoir Dogs became a byword for cinematic gore.
Miller defines a street gang as "a self-formed association of peers, united by mutual interests, with identifiable leadership and internal organization, who act collectively or as individuals to achieve specific purposes, including the conduct of illegal activity and control of a particular territory, facility, or enterprise.
An individual's age, physical structure, ability to fight, willingness to commit violence, and arrest record are often principal factors in determining where an individual stands in the gang hierarchy; now money derived from criminal activity and ability to provide for the gang also impacts the individual's status within the gang.
The structure of gangs varies depending primarily on size, which can range from five or ten to thousands. Many of the larger gangs break up into smaller groups, cliques or sub-sets.
The cliques typically bring more territory Culture of violence a gang as they expand and recruit new members. Most gangs operate informally with leadership falling to whomever takes control; others have distinct leadership and are highly structured, which resembles more or less a business or corporation.
Prison gangs Culture of violence groups in prison or correctional institution  for mutual protection and advancement. Prison gangs often have several "affiliates" or "chapters" in different state prison systems that branch out due to the movement or transfer of their members.
The study neither War nor Peace: International Comparisons of Children and Youth in Organized Armed Violence studied ten cities worldwide and found that in eight of them, "street gangs had strong links to prison gangs".
Although the majority of gang leaders from Chicago are now incarcerated, most of those leaders continue to manage their gangs from within prison. During the s, prison gangs in Cape TownSouth Africa began recruiting street gang members from outside and helped increase associations between prison and street gangs.
Involvement[ edit ] Matthew O'Deane has identified five primary steps of gang involvement applicable to the majority of gangs in the world; at risk, associates, members, hardcore members, and leaders. This gang member is probably the oldest in the posse, likely has the smallest criminal record, and they often have the power to direct the gang's activity, whether they are involved or not.
In many jurisdictions, this person is likely a prison gang member calling the shots from within the prison system or is on parole. Often, they distance themselves from the street gang activities and make attempts to appear legitimate, possibly operating a business that they run as a front for the gang's drug dealing or other illegal operations.
These desires are very influential in attracting individuals to join gangs, and their influence is particularly strong on at-risk youth.
Such individuals are often experiencing low levels of these various factors in their own lives, feeling ostracized from their community and lacking social support.
Joining a gang may appear to them to be the only way to obtain status and success; they may feel that "if you can't beat 'em, join 'em". Upon joining a gang, they instantly gain a feeling of belonging and identity; they are surrounded with individuals whom they can relate to.
They have generally grown up in the same area as one another and can bond over similar needs. In some areas, joining a gang is an integrated part of the growing-up process.
Gang defectors are often subject to retaliation from the deserted gang. Many gangs, including foreign and transnational gangs, hold that the only way to leave the gang is through death. This is sometimes informally called the "morgue rule".
In addition, when together, the gang criminality as a whole is greater than that of its members when they are alone. Some states have a formal process to establish that a person is a member of a gang, called validation. Once a person is validated as a gang member, the person is subject to increased sentences, harsher punishments such as solitary confinement and more restrictive parole rules.
To validate a person as a gang member, the officials generally must provide evidence of several factors, such as tattoos, photographs, admissions, clothing, etc. The legal requirements for validating a person are much lower than the requirements for convicting of a crime.
A survey of Mexican American gang members and associates defined these categories as girlfriends, hoodrats, good girls, and relatives.
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Hoodrats are seen as being promiscuous and heavy drug and alcohol users. Gang members may engage in casual sex with these girls, but they are not viewed as potential longterm partners and are severely stigmatized by both men and women in gang culture. Good girls are long term friends of members, often from childhood, and relatives are typically sisters or cousins.
These are fluid categories, and women often change status as they move between them. Valdez found that women with ties to gang members are often used to hold illegal weapons and drugs, typically, because members believe the girls are less likely to be searched by police for such items.
Gangs also victimize individuals by robbery and kidnapping. Often, gangs hire "lookouts" to warn members of upcoming law enforcement.Cultural defenses in domestic violence cases use politically expedient stereotypes of culture, forwarded by attorneys on behalf of defendants, to play into already existing negative depictions of culture.
"Cultural violence" refers to aspects of a culture that can be used to justify or legitimize direct or structural violence, and may be exemplified by religion and ideology, language and .
A troubled young man in Connecticut lays his hands on the kinds of guns that no civilian should ever have and does something that no civilization should ever see. The obvious way to prevent the. Military potency is synonymous for a nation’s power within the global sphere, in most modern societies today.
The United States has historically, and contemporarily, been the most notorious culprit of this—exercising military power, and subsequently inflicting violence, in order to establish its. A gang is a group of associates, friends or members of a family with a defined leadership and internal organization that identifies with or claims control over territory in a community and engages, either individually or collectively, in illegal, and possibly violent, behavior.
Some criminal gang members are "jumped in" (by going through a process of initiation), or they have to prove their. The nation's largest and most influential anti-sexual-violence organization is rejecting the idea that culture — as opposed to the actions of individuals — is responsible for rape.