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If these drugs are bought through a prescription then the price controls kick in but if they are sold directly to the individual by the doctor then the price controls do not apply. If a doctor has a choice between two medications to prescribe, has the opportunity to make a few bucks by prescribing one and nothing by prescribing the other, which drug is he likely to prescribe? After all it is all about cash flow! To be human is to be born into pain.

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Alternatively, this is it including my conclusion: Considered by some to be skilled communicators of knowledge, others argue that medical writers are merely marketing puppets working at the behest of their pharmaceutical company masters.

The discovery of ghostwritten journal articles, however, has tilted recent debate throwing medical literature and research into question. Industry documents released during litigation have shown that some drug companies have hired medical writers designwrite advertising signs anonymously develop articles which paint a positive picture of their product, and then paid academic physicians or scientists to be named as authors.

Lisa Bero, professor of health policy and clinical pharmacy at the University of California explains: Knowing who will stand up for the integrity of the data is critical to trusting a scientific publication. Paul Thacker, a former investigator for Senator Charles Grassley researching medical conflicts of interest, says: This completely undermines the foundation of science, meaning designwrite advertising signs any attempt at understanding is skewed in a marketing direction.

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This is an extreme form of ghostwriting. Even if a professional medical writer is acknowledged in a footnote, and the named authors have approved the manuscript, some would argue that the article is still on the ghostwritten spectrum — they should be listed as authors 3.

Any unacknowledged involvement of a sponsor on a manuscript is a matter of concern — it will potentially have an impact on the content and therefore affect the conclusions reached by readers.

Those involved in medical communications have responded to the negative view of their profession by forming organisations and developing qualifications aimed at instilling and promoting ethical practice.

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But how impartial and successful these are is open to debate, and many remain concerned about the independence of those hired by the pharmaceutical industry to write up their trials. Alastair Matheson, an academic and independent consultant with extensive industry experience, explains the ineffectiveness of current guidelines.

They say that ghostwriting only occurs if the writer is not acknowledged. Some believe the pharmaceutical industry has tightened up its act and argue that the highly cited industry documents are some years old now.

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So we will not know for certain for years [whether ghostwriting is still occurring now]. Adam Jacobs, founder of medical writing company Dianthus Medical Communications, says that medical writers are trained professionals who write papers full time, and should therefore be better at the job than those who are not.

Dr Jacobs also says that employing medical writers is a more efficient use of resources. Whilst attention has turned to ghostwriting in the advent of major lawsuits, it is not necessarily a new phenomenon in medicine. By the s, pharmaceutical companies had grasped the role medical journals could play in marketing their products.

Memos from this time show the relationship between a pharmaceutical company, Smith Kline French and Joseph Scarano, a rhinologist from Philadelphia. The marketing drive was given further impetus after the Second World War, when new medicines, surgical procedures and psychological treatments led to a rise in spending on biomedical research and healthcare.

The pharmaceutical market became increasingly competitive—and their products needed to be marketed. So they began to hire medical writers as part of their marketing teams, developing strategies for new products.

The Thalidomide disaster in the s heralded the start of drug regulation and companies turned to medical writers to compile the complex dossiers required by the regulators.

But it was in the s that the medical writing industry really took off, as the commercialisation of research began in earnest. Partnerships between university and industry were actively encouraged in the US, and a number of policies encouraged private companies to invest heavily in university research 6.

Legislation persuaded researchers to patent publicly funded work and then to license it to private companies in return for royalties.

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Byan estimated 60 per cent of biomedical research in the US was funded by private companies 6. The UK witnessed a similar expansion with universities operating increasingly as businesses.

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As one medical writer told the BMJ: Sensing the commercial potential, medical communication agencies began to emerge. Early examples include Scientific Therapeutics Information, Inc established inHealth Science Communications established inFleishman Hillard established in and Caudex Medical and Complete Medical Communications established in The sector has since boomed and medical writing has become an industry in its own right.UK GRAPHIC INSTALLS LIMITED LEEDS - Cash at bank £, ( £41,), Director MATTHEW WEAVER.

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The journal will actively engage medical students from all over the world without subjecting them to drug advertising or other unnecessary marketing. By offering free access and redistribution rights for all our articles, PLoS Medicine aims to bring the latest medical research to a global audience.

Nitrous oxide (laughing gas) has also been a valuable adjunct as it is safe, generally pleasant and allows the patient to be alert enough to drive home immediately after the treatment.

I feel that there is a major advantage to the patient to have the procedure performed by a physician who has the depth of training to be able make modifications.

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