It is a pseudo scientific theory or, in more politically correct terms, unrealistic idealization of market behavior. Like classic Lysenkoism in the past was supported by Stalin's totalitarian state, it was supported by the power of neoliberal statewhich is the state captured by financial oligarchy see Casino Capitalism and Quiet coup for more details. Among the factors ignored by EMH is the positive feedback loop inherent in any system based on factional reserve banking, the level of market players ignorance, unequal access to the real information about the markets, the level of brainwashing performed on "lemmings" by controlled by elite MSM and market manipulation by the largest players and the state see ignorance.
Global Economic Environment of Business 6. Information Technology Following few topics have been added Chapter 3: Disclosure of Accounting Policies AS 2: Valuation of Inventories AS 3: Cash Flow Statements AS 4: Depreciation Accounting AS 7: Construction Contracts Revised AS 9: Revenue Recognition AS Accounting for Fixed Assets AS Accounting for Government Grants AS Accounting for Investments AS Accounting for Special Transactions: Advanced Issues in Partnership Accounts in respect of Admission, Retirement and Death of a Partner including treatment of goodwill, Dissolution of partnership firms including piecemeal distribution of assets; Amalgamation of partnership firms; Conversion into a company and Sale to a company; Issues related to accounting in Limited Liability Partnerships.
The provisions of the Companies Act, which are still in force would form part of the syllabus till the time their corresponding or new provisions of the Companies Act, are enforced.
The Indian Contract Act, Specific contracts covered from section 76 onwards: The Negotiable Instruments Act, The Payment of Bonus Act, Applicability, Definitions, Entitlement of payment of bonus, Minimum and Maximum bonus, Calculation of bonus, Miscellaneous provisions 5.
Introduction, Definition, Various Schemes and other provisions 6. The Payment of Gratuity Act, Interpretation of statutes and Drafting of simple deeds and documents: Preliminary and Punishment for the Offence of Money laundering 9.
The Consumer Protection Act, Definitions and Application of the Act, Consumer disputes redressed agencies and Miscellaneous provisions. Tabular Format of major Labour Acts covering their name, preamble and basic comments Note: If new legislations are enacted in place of the existing legislations, the syllabus would include the corresponding provisions of such new legislations with effect from a date notified by the Institute.
Similarly if any existing legislation ceases to have effect, the syllabus will accordingly exclude such legislation with effect from the date to be notified by the Institute.
Job cost cards and databases, collecting direct costs of each job, attributing overheads to jobs, Application of job costing. Determination of optimum batch quantity, Ascertainment of cost for a batch, Preparation of batch cost sheet, Treatment of spoiled and defective works.
An introduction o Important definitions in the Income-tax Act, o Basis of Charge and Rates of Tax o Concept of previous year and assessment year 2. Residential status and scope of total income o Residential status o Scope of total income o Deemed receipt and accrual of income in India 3.
Incomes which do not form part of total income o Incomes not included in total income o Tax holiday for newly established units in Special Economic Zones o Charitable and religious trusts and institutions: Heads of income and the provisions governing computation of income under different heads o Salaries o Income from house property o Profits and gains of business or profession o Capital gains o Income from other sources 5.
Income of other persons included in assesses total income o Clubbing of income: Aggregation of income; Set-off, or carry forward and set-off of losses o Aggregation of income o Concept of set-off and carry forward and set-off of losses o Inter-source and Inter-head adjustments o Provisions governing set-off and carry forward and set-off of losses under different heads of income o Order of set-off of losses o Other provisions relating to set-off and carry forward of losses 7.
Deductions from gross total income o General provisions o Deductions in respect of payments o Specific deductions in respect of income o Other deductions 8. Computation of total income and tax liability of resident Individuals o Meaning of total income o Income to be considered while computing total income of resident individuals o Special provisions for spouses governed by Portuguese civil code o Procedure for computation of total income and tax liability of resident individuals 9.
Provisions concerning advance tax and tax deducted at source o Introduction o Provisions concerning deduction of tax at source o Certificate for deduction of tax at a lower rate o No deduction in certain cases o Miscellaneous Provisions relating to deduction of tax at source o Advance payment of tax o Interest for defaults in payment of advance tax and deferment of advance tax Provisions for filing return of income o Return of Income o Compulsory filing of return of income o Interest for default in furnishing return of income o Specified class or classes of persons to be exempted from filing return of income o Return of loss o Return of income of charitable trusts and institutions, political parties, universities, colleges etc.
Concept of indirect taxes — General principles, Constitutional aspects o Concept and features of indirect taxes o Constitutional provisions of indirect taxes o Principal indirect taxes o Administration of indirect taxes 2. Service tax o Basic concepts and general principles o Concept of service, charge of service tax, negative list of services, date of determination of rate of tax, value of taxable service and rate of exchange o Point of taxation of services o Exemptions and abatements o Valuation of taxable services o Registration o Invoicing for taxable service o Payment of service tax including reverse charge o Furnishing of returns Note — If any new legislation s is enacted in place of an existing legislation sthe syllabus will accordingly include the corresponding provisions of such new legislation s in place of the existing legislation s with effect from the date to be notified by the Institute.
Similarly, if any existing legislation ceases to have effect, the syllabus will accordingly exclude such legislation with effect from the date to be notified by the Institute.
Further, considering that Goods and Services Tax may be implemented in India in near future, the syllabus will accordingly be modified to include the same with effect from the date to be notified by the Institute.Put another way, the pattern of dividends does not affect the wealth of the shareholders.
3 The ﬁnancing method does not affect the shareholders’ wealth. Provided that the invest-ment policy outlined in Proposition 1 (above) is followed, it does not matter whether the investment is ﬁnanced by the shareholders or by borrowing.
‘. Enquiry: Support: All Categories; All Categories; CA; CAT; CLAT; CMA; CS; GATE; JEE; NEET; SSC; UPSC. Secondary data, obtained from official sources, were utilized. Employing correlation and regression analyses, this study confirms the Modigliani- Miller (MM) capital structure theorem, information content of dividends ’ hypothesis, stock returns-systematic factors relation, and inflation- hedging capacity of .
CA Intermediate amendments and updates subject wise: Complete details on CA Intermediate amendments and updates subject wise with study material. Modigliani and Miller (MM) Hypothesis.
CA Intermediate amendments and updates subject wise. D. Management of Working Capital.
Management of Working Capital. Modigliani – Miller (MM) Hypothesis The Modigliani – Miller hypothesis is identical with the Net Operating Income approach. Modigliani and Miller argued that, in the absence of taxes the cost of capital and the value of the firm are not affected by the changes in capital structure.
Since the foundational work of Modigliani and Miller (), a number of authors extended their capital structure irrelevancy theory.
The literature also thoroughly describes the various attempts to model company debt/equity policy. However, what optimal mix of .