A brilliant student of classics at Paris University, after graduating he established himself as a barrister at the parlement of Normandy. At the age of twenty-three he became secretary general to Thiroux de Crosnes, the intendant of Haute Normandie. Two years later he followed Thiroux to Paris, where the latter had been appointed to the high office of lieutenant de police.

This is primarily a list of Greatest Mathematicians of the Past, but I use birth as an arbitrary cutoff, and two of the "Top " are still alive now. Click here for a longer List of including many more 20th-century mathematicians. Click for a discussion of certain omissions.

Obviously the relative ranks of, say Fibonacci and Ramanujan, will never satisfy everyone since the reasons for their "greatness" are different. Please e-mail and tell me! Following are the top mathematicians in chronological birth-year order.

By the way, the ranking assigned to a mathematician will appear if you place the cursor atop the name at the top of his mini-bio. Earliest mathematicians Little is known of the earliest mathematics, but the famous Ishango Bone from Early Stone-Age Africa has tally marks suggesting arithmetic.

The markings include six prime numbers 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19 in order, though this is probably coincidence. By years ago, Mesopotamian tablets show tables of squares, cubes, reciprocals, and even logarithms and trig functions, using a primitive place-value system in base 60, not The Greeks borrowed from Babylonian mathematics, which was the most advanced of any before the Greeks; but there is no ancient Babylonian mathematician whose name is known.

Also at least years ago, the Egyptian scribe Ahmes produced a famous manuscript now called the Rhind Papyrusitself a copy of a late Middle Kingdom text. It showed simple algebra methods and included a table giving optimal expressions using Egyptian fractions.

Today, Egyptian fractions lead to challenging number theory problems with no practical applications, but they may have had practical value for the Egyptians.

The Pyramids demonstrate that Egyptians were adept at geometry, though little written evidence survives. Babylon was much more advanced than Egypt at arithmetic and algebra; this was probably due, at least in part, to their place-value system. But although their base system survives e.

The Vedics understood relationships between geometry and arithmetic, developed astronomy, astrology, calendars, and used mathematical forms in some religious rituals.

The earliest mathematician to whom definite teachings can be ascribed was Lagadha, who apparently lived about BC and used geometry and elementary trigonometry for his astronomy.

Apastambha did work summarized below; other early Vedic mathematicians solved quadratic and simultaneous equations.

Other early cultures also developed some mathematics. The ancient Mayans apparently had a place-value system with zero before the Hindus did; Aztec architecture implies practical geometry skills.

Ancient China certainly developed mathematics, in fact the first known proof of the Pythagorean Theorem is found in a Chinese book Zhoubi Suanjing which might have been written about BC.

Thales may have invented the notion of compass-and-straightedge construction. Thales was also an astronomer; he invented the day calendar, introduced the use of Ursa Minor for finding North, invented the gnomonic map projection the first of many methods known today to map part of the surface of a sphere to a plane, and is the first person believed to have correctly predicted a solar eclipse.

His theories of physics would seem quaint today, but he seems to have been the first to describe magnetism and static electricity.

Aristotle said, "To Thales the primary question was not what do we know, but how do we know it. It is said he once leased all available olive presses after predicting a good olive season; he did this not for the wealth itself, but as a demonstration of the use of intelligence in business.

Since his famous theorems of geometry were probably already known in ancient Babylon, his importance derives from imparting the notions of mathematical proof and the scientific method to ancient Greeks. Anaximander is famous for astronomy, cartography and sundials, and also enunciated a theory of evolution, that land species somehow developed from primordial fish!

For this reason Thales may belong on this list for his historical importance despite his relative lack of mathematical achievements. Apastambha ca BC India The Dharmasutra composed by Apastambha contains mensuration techniques, novel geometric construction techniques, a method of elementary algebra, and what may be an early proof of the Pythagorean Theorem.

Apastambha built on the work of earlier Vedic scholars, especially Baudhayana, as well as Harappan and probably Mesopotamian mathematicians.

His notation and proofs were primitive, and there is little certainty about his life. However similar comments apply to Thales of Miletus, so it seems fair to mention Apastambha who was perhaps the most creative Vedic mathematician before Panini along with Thales as one of the earliest mathematicians whose name is known.Antananarivo, Madagascar U.S.

Embassy Antananarivo alerts U.S.

citizens to a plague outbreak which occurs each year in Madagascar. To date, there have been confirmed cases and deaths. Coats-of-arms of famous scientists and inventors; 13th to 21st century. The largest collection ever assembled in one place. With blazoning and thumbnail pictures.

Cauchy's father (Louis François Cauchy) was a high official in the Parisian Police of the New Régime, but lost this position due to the French Revolution (July 14, ), which broke out one month before Augustin-Louis was ashio-midori.com for: See list. Short Biography: Augustin-Louis Cauchy Pages: 5 ( words) Published: April 28, Cauchy was born on August 21, and grew up in Paris as a young child [6, p.1].

Claude-Louis Berthollet: Claude-Louis Berthollet, central French figure in the emergence of chemistry as a modern discipline in the late 18th century.

He combined acute experimental skills with fundamental theoretical proposals about the nature of chemical reactions, eventually leading to the law of mass action. General Information. I hope to make available public domain materials that are essential for the study of ancient and early modern mathematics and mathematical astronomy.

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Escutcheons of Science - Armorial of Scientists - Numericana