When do you need a cite a source? Whenever you quote you need to give the source. Whenever you refer to a book, paper or document you need to make sure that readers know exactly which book, etc you are r…eferring to. When you first refer to it you need to have a note giving the details.
In ornithology[ edit ] Another early example of crowdsourcing occurred in the field of ornithology. The project called birders from across North America to count and record the number of birds in each species they witnessed on Christmas Day.
The project was successful, and the records from 27 different contributors were compiled into one bird census, which tallied around 90 species of birds. In the census, more than 70, individuals participated across 2, bird count circles. In public policy[ edit ] Crowdsourcing public policy and the production of public services is also referred to as citizen sourcing.
While some scholars argue crowdsourcing is a policy tool  or a definite means of co-production  others question that and argue that crowdsourcing should be considered just as a technological enabler that simply can increase speed and ease of participation.
Research has emerged since  that focuses on the use of crowdsourcing for policy purposes. Iceland crowdsourced their constitution reform process inand Finland has crowdsourced several law reform processes to address their off-road traffic laws. The Finnish government allowed citizens to go on an online forum to discuss problems and possible resolutions regarding some off-road traffic laws.
The crowdsourced information and resolutions would then be passed on to legislators for them to refer to when making a decision, letting citizens more directly contribute to public policy.
Assignment Writing Service. At university, you'll complete countless assignments and term papers - each one offers a chance to secure a great mark and impress your tutors. Citation Machine™ helps students and professionals properly credit the information that they use. Cite your journal article in American Psychological Association 6th . identifying the source document. The list is long not so that you will include all of it in every reference, but because Web page content and format vary so widely. 1. Author or editor's last name, then first name. 2. Title of the article in quotation marks. 3. Web site name, italicized. (Underlining is no longer used.) 4. Edition or version number. 5.
This approach ultimately allows for well-designed artistic projects because individuals are less conscious, or maybe even less aware, of scrutiny towards their work. In an online atmosphere, more attention can be given to the specific needs of a project, rather than spending as much time in communication with other individuals.
Some examples of successful crowdsourcing themes are problems that bug people, things that make people feel good about themselves, projects that tap into niche knowledge of proud experts, subjects that people find sympathetic or any form of injustice.
Explicit crowdsourcing lets users work together to evaluate, share, and build different specific tasks, while implicit crowdsourcing means that users solve a problem as a side effect of something else they are doing.
With explicit crowdsourcing, users can evaluate particular items like books or webpages, or share by posting products or items. Implicit crowdsourcing can take two forms: Brabham puts forth a problem-based typology of crowdsourcing approaches: It is ideal for creating collective resources.
Distributed human intelligence tasking is used for information management problems where an organization has a set of information in hand and mobilizes a crowd to process or analyze the information.
It is ideal for processing large data sets that computers cannot easily do. Broadcast search is used for ideation problems where an organization mobilizes a crowd to come up with a solution to a problem that has an objective, provable right answer. It is ideal for scientific problem solving.
Peer-vetted creative production is used for ideation problems, where an organization mobilizes a crowd to come up with a solution to a problem which has an answer that is subjective or dependent on public support.
It is ideal for design, aesthetic, or policy problems.
This method is simple and easy to understand, but it privileges early contributions, which have more time to accumulate likes. In recent years several crowdsourcing companies have begun to use pairwise comparisonsbacked by ranking algorithms.
Ranking algorithms do not penalize late contributions. They also produce results faster. Ranking algorithms have proven to be at least 10 times faster than manual stack ranking.
How Elo Limits Disruption". One drawback, however, is that ranking algorithms are more difficult to understand than like counting.
Examples[ edit ] Some common categories of crowdsourcing can be used effectively in the commercial world, including crowdvoting, crowdsolvingcrowdfundingmicroworkcreative crowdsourcingcrowdsource workforce managementand inducement prize contests.
Although this may not be an exhaustive list, the items cover the current major ways in which people use crowds to perform tasks. Governor Gavin Newsomis an example of modern-day crowd voting.
Participants access the CRC online and vote on six timely issues. This system aims to effectively involve the greater public in relevant political discussions and highlight the specific topics with which Californians are most concerned.
Using a mobile app the fans voted on the day-to-day operations of the team, the mascot name, signing of players and even the offensive playcalling during games. Crowdsourcing in Software Development[ edit ] Crowdsourcing approach to software development is used by a number of companies.
Notable examples are Topcoder and its parent company Wipro. For dictionary work, as was mentioned above, it was applied over a hundred years ago by the Oxford English Dictionary editors, using paper and postage.
Much later, a call for collecting examples of proverbs on a specific topic religious pluralism was printed in a journal.
Currently, a number of dictionary compilation projects are being conducted on the web, particularly for languages that are not highly academically documented, such as for the Oromo language.
Crowdsolving Crowdsolving is a collaborative, yet holistic, way of solving a problem using many people, communities, groups, or resources. TrackR uses a system they call "crowd GPS" to load Bluetooth identities to a central server to track lost or stolen items.Satisfying customers is the source of sustainable value creation." Developing a value proposition is based on a review and analysis of the benefits, costs and value that an organization can deliver to itscustomers, prospective customers, and other constituent groups within and outside the organization.
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