Chapter 1 All Gaul is divided into three parts, one of which the Belgae inhabit, the Aquitani another, those who in their own language are called Celts, in our Gauls, the third. All these differ from each other in language, customs and laws. Of all these, the Belgae are the bravest, because they are furthest from the civilization and refinement of [our] Province, and merchants least frequently resort to them, and import those things which tend to effeminate the mind; and they are the nearest to the Germans, who dwell beyond the Rhine, with whom they are continually waging war; for which reason the Helvetii also surpass the rest of the Gauls in valor, as they contend with the Germans in almost daily battles, when they either repel them from their own territories, or themselves wage war on their frontiers. One part of these, which it has been said that the Gauls occupy, takes its beginning at the river Rhone; it is bounded by the river Garonne, the ocean, and the territories of the Belgae; it borders, too, on the side of the Sequani and the Helvetii, upon the river Rhine, and stretches toward the north.
C The Romans had been present in the south of France since B. Their new province was officially called Transalpine Gaul, to distinguish it from Cisalpine Gaul in northern Italy, but was often simply called 'The Province'.
Julius Caesar, one of the Consuls for 59 B. Caesar was a middle-aged politician with no military reputation. His partners in the First Triumvirate, Crassus and Pompey, both had distinguished backgrounds — Crassus had defeated Spartacus and was fabulously wealthy, while Pompey had ended the Third Mithridatic War and conquered much of modern Turkey.
Caesar was a popular politician, who had used unorthodox methods to get two land bills passed during this time as Consul, before arranging to be given a five year command in his new provinces.
His conservative opponents in Rome were probably glad to see him removed from the city for such a long time, and had no reason to suspect that Caesar was about to reveal himself as one of the greatest military commanders in Roman history. The Aedui were friends and allies of the Roman people, and their tribal lands were situated west of the Saone and north of the Province.
The Aedui's bitterest enemies before the Gallic War were their eastern neighbours, the Sequani, who occupied the eastern bank of the Saone. Belgae Caesar described the Belgae as being the most warlike inhabitants of Gaul, partly because they were furthest from the corrupting influences of civilisation and partly because they were constantly at war with their German neighbours.
As with the rest of Gaul the Belgae were split into a number of tribes, with the Bellovaci, the Suessiones and the Nervii amongst the most important.
They were coming under increasing pressure from the Germans in the north and east, and felt trapped with their backs to the Alps. In around 61 B. This would not have been a peaceful migration — the west coast was after all populated by the Aquitani who would have resisted the invaders.
Orgetorix didn't survive long enough to take part in the migration. He was plotting to seize power over the Helvetii, but his plot was discovered and he committed suicide rather than face his trial.
These plans were completely unacceptable to the Romans. Although individual Roman politicians might hope for unrest and a chance to win military glory, as a whole the Republic much preferred to have stable friendly neighbours.
A new Helvetian empire on the west coast of Gaul, created by conquest, would not be a stable neighbour. It would also have threatened the Roman road that connected Italy to their Spanish provinces.
The migration itself would have caused endless chaos and disruption in Gaul, not least when the Helvetii reached their destination and attempted to overthrow the existing inhabitants of the area. There was also the problem of who would fill the gap left behind by the migration — the Romans certainly didn't want a Germanic tribe to move into the newly empty space - there would have been nothing to stop Ariovistus expanding his kingdom south into Switzerland.
Ariovistus The situation in Gaul was complicated by the presence of Ariovistus, a German king who had crossed the Rhine at the invitation of the Sequani, to help them in their wars against the Aedui. His intervention came at the perfect moment. The Aedui requested help from their Roman allies, but in 62 B.
Ariovistus defeated the Aedui at Admagetobriga. By then he had established his own kingdom, taking up to two thirds of the lands of the Sequani. It was probably always going to be only a matter of time before Ariovistus clashed with the Romans, who had a perfectly reasonable dread of Germanic hordes crossing the Rhine, having suffered a series of heavy defeats at the hands of the Cimbri and the Teutones in B.
The Helvetii At the start of 58 B. Caesar had four legions in his massive province, three posted at Aquileia in the north-east of Italy, where there was a threat from the Dacians, and only one was in Transalpine Gaul while Roman politics kept Caesar as close to Rome as he could legitimately reach until mid-March.
Caesar's problems in Rome were resolved just in time, for in March it became clear that the Helvetii were about to begin their migration. They destroyed their towns and villages, and on 28 March 58 B.
According to figures given by Caesar a total ofpeople were involved in the migration, of whom a quarter, or about 90, were fighting men. There were two possible routes that the migrating Helvetii could take to cross Gaul. The best ran through the Roman Province, and so when they reached the Rhone they asked for permission to cross the border.
Caesar had reached Geneva just before the Helvetii, but knew that with only one legion he had no chance of stopping the migration.On the Importance of Archives It seems strange to researchers like myself that anyone should question the necessity for collecting materials from the past and organizing them in publicly funded archives so that we in contemporary times may use them in our studies.
The Gallic War ( B.C.) was the conflict in which Julius Caesar first emerged as a great military leader, after an earlier career as an impoverished populist politician.
A conflict that began with an attempt to preserve stability on the borders of the Roman province of . The Importance of Nonverbal Communication in Sports Tyler J. Segerstrom University of Oklahoma Nonverbal communication is all around us in the sports world today.
Many people don The Importance To Orgetorix Of Achieveing Sovereignity; Parking lot Essay; Writing Essay; City Essay; Join millions of other students and start your research. Patricia Battin () The Importance of ashio-midori.com American Archivist: Spring , Vol.
53, No. 2, pp. The Roman army was very important to Ancient Rome's success. The army was extremely strong, helping Rome conquer most of modern-day Europe, and parts of Asia and Africa.
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Archives for All: The Importance of Archives in Society Randall C.
Jimerson The author is Professor of History and Director of the graduate study program in.