Knowledge of using Iron metalwork gradually spread throughout Ireland from Europe where Iron was increasingly being used in metalwork.
Questions about Art History. What is Hallstatt Culture? The term "Hallstatt" refers to an important central European culture of the early Iron Age of the 1st millennium BCE - centred on Austria and the Upper Danube area - which is strongly associated with the arrival of Celtic tribes from the steppes of southern Russia.
It is regarded as the first clearly defined Celtic cultureand it remained the principal early civilization of the region from around BCE until superceded by the La Tene culture in the fifth century BCE.
Where Was Hallstatt Culture Practised? The culture was centred around Austria, but Hallstatt styles spread out into two zones: Thus by the 6th century BCE, it extended roughly 1, kilometres west to east, from the Champagne-Ardenne region of France, across the Upper Rhine area of southern Germany and Switzerland, into the upper reaches of the Danube in Austria, as far as the Vienna Basin and the Danubian Lowland in the east.
The actual name of the culture derives from the excavation undertaken near the village of Halstaat in Austria, situated in the salt-mining region of Salzkammergat. Here, in the s, a team of archeologists from the Academy of Sciences in Vienna found more than 2, graves - containing both cremated and interred remains, along with caches of weaponry, armour, jewellerypottery and other artifacts, many decorated in an early Celtic "symmetrical" style, employing design motifs of the ancient Danubian tradition mixed with Greek and Etruscan artistic influences.
Other Hallstatt archeological finds were made at Burgstallkogel in the central Sulm valley near Leibnitz, Austriawhich appears to have been a major centre during the Hallstatt C period.
The most significant hoards of Hallstatt bronze artifacts were found in Romania. Why Was Hallstatt Centred in Austria? The geographical locus of the culture was determined by economics. From its metre deep mine shafts, Salzkammergat exported salt all over Europe, and this lucrative trade - together with control of trade routes along the Danube - financed and facilitated the development of an advanced iron-making industry in the region, whose iron ploughs, tools and weapons gave Hallstatt people a marked technological edge over other tribes.
Thus in a nutshell, Hallstatt was based on salt and iron. One should note that the use of the iron plough was instrumental in greatly extending areas of cultivation, leading to a significant increase in agricultural productivity and prosperity.
This in turn led to a rise in the demand for land, which resulted in an extension of the culture into new areas. The main practitioners of Hallstatt were Celts. Although we lack precise information about their origins, they are believed to have migrated from the steppelands of southern Russia and the Caucasus, an area previously home to the Bronze era Maikop culture, noted for its skills in metallurgy and general crafts.
Because of this, Hallstatt is seen as the first homogenous Celtic civilization. Hallstatt is noted for its Celtic metalworkparticularly its finely made iron weaponry and tools, as well its bronze-based artifacts, but relatively few silver or gold items.
Archeological finds indicate a way of life that far exceeded a simple farming culture, and analysis of burial remains reveals a class structure topped by a wealthy aristocracy of chieftains and other VIPs.
The era is commonly divided into four phases: During this period, which confusingly is also known as the Urnfield culture c.
Early iron tools appeared. Although it developed from the preceding Urnfield civilizationit witnessed three key changes. First was the introduction of more advanced iron manufacturing technology: Second, inhumation replaced cremation as the main method of burial.
Third, society became sufficiently prosperous to support a clear hierarchy, whose upper ranks were interred in richly furnished graves. Metalwork, weapons and horse-trappings became more ornate.
Typical metal objects produced included: Early archaic Greek pottery appears in the western Hallstatt zone, along with numerous objects evidencing widespread trade with every corner of the Mediterranean, and as far east as China.The contribution of La Tene to ancient art continued for a surprisingly long period.
As stated, La Tene was extinguished on the Continent by the process of Romanisation. As stated, La Tene was extinguished on the Continent by the process of Romanisation.
Celtic art in the Middle Ages was practiced by the peoples of Ireland and parts of Britain in the year period from the Roman withdrawal from Britain in the 5th century, to the establishment of Romanesque art in the 12th century.
The La Tène culture (/ l ə ˈ t ɛ n /; French pronunciation:) was a European Iron Age culture named after the archaeological site of La Tène on the north side of Lake Neuchâtel in Switzerland, where thousands of objects had been deposited in the lake, as was discovered after the water level dropped in The La Tene culture is what archaeologists call the barbarians of central Europe, who harassed the Greek and Romans during the European Iron Age.
European Iron Age La Tène Culture. Search the site GO. Social Sciences. Archaeology Ancient Civilizations The end of the La Tène period is traditionally associated with the successes of Roman.
Although there is little sign of Hallstatt-like culture in Ireland, the later La Tène culture (which may date in Ireland from bc or earlier) is represented in metalwork and some stone sculpture, mainly in the northern half of the country.
The La Tene Period in Ireland: Invasion or Imitation? As the Bronze Age in Ireland drew to a close, there appeared to be a new cultural influence. Developing in the Alps of central Europe, the Celts spread their culture across modern day Germany and France and into the Balkans as far as Turkey (Gutrich, ).